Letters of paul dating updating motherbroad
Scholarly opinion is sharply divided on whether or not Colossians and 2 Thessalonians are genuine letters of Paul.
The remaining four contested epistles – Ephesians, as well as the three known as the Pastoral epistles (1 and 2 Timothy, and Titus) – have been labeled pseudepigraphical works by most critical scholars.
A consistent point of view implies a common author; contradictory or unrelated teachings imply multiple authors. Michaelis saw the Christological likeness between the Pastoral Epistles and some of Paul's undisputed works, and argued in favor of Pauline authorship.
A problem with this method is analyzing the coherence of a body of diverse and developing teachings. For example, with the same epistles mentioned above, B. Easton argued their theological notions disagreed with other Pauline works, and rejected Pauline authorship.
There is no record of scholarly doubt concerning authorship until the 19th century when, around 1840, German scholar Ferdinand Christian Baur accepted only four of the letters bearing Paul's name as genuine, which he called the Hauptebriefe (Romans, 1 & 2 Corinthians, and Galatians). Few scholars have argued against this list of seven epistles, which all share common themes, emphasis, vocabulary and style. Craddock, The People’s New Testament Commentary (Westminster John Knox Press), the Introduction to each letter that is in Paul’s name; Dennis E.
For example, Paul mentions that he is a prisoner in his Epistle to Philemon 1:7; based on this statement, J. One difficulty with this position is the limited data available on Paul's historical setting, and this is especially true with the conclusion of the narrative of Acts prior to Paul's death.
This use or reference implies the material quoted was in existence at the time the external evidence was created.
For example, the Second Epistle to the Thessalonians is named by Irenaeus in the mid-2nd century, as well as Justin Martyr and Ignatius of Antioch; it is considered unlikely for the surviving version of this letter to have been written after this time.
Unfortunately, these witnesses are often either damaged or too late in date to provide much help.
Implicit references are quotation from Paul, especially indirect or unattributed, or expressing ideas and phrases that appear in his works.
Explicit references would be mentioning the text or letter by name, or a recognizable form of that text.